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Schema theory predicts that information matching prior expectations will be more easily stored and recalled than information that does not match.

In one study, participants read a profile of a woman which described a mix of introverted and extroverted behaviors.

One group was told this was to assess the woman for a job as a librarian, while a second group were told it was for a job in real estate sales.

There was a significant difference between what these two groups recalled, with the "librarian" group recalling more examples of introversion and the "sales" groups recalling more extroverted behavior.

Another group were told the opposite. In a subsequent, apparently unrelated study, participants were asked to recall events from their lives in which they had been either introverted or extroverted.

Each group of participants provided more memories connecting themselves with the more desirable personality type, and recalled those memories more quickly.

Changes in emotional states can also influence memory recall. Simpson had been acquitted of murder charges. Results indicated that participants' assessments for Simpson's guilt changed over time.

The more that participants' opinion of the verdict had changed, the less stable were the participant's memories regarding their initial emotional reactions.

When participants recalled their initial emotional reactions two months and a year later, past appraisals closely resembled current appraisals of emotion.

People demonstrate sizable myside bias when discussing their opinions on controversial topics. Myside bias has been shown to influence the accuracy of memory recall.

Participants noted a higher experience of grief at six months rather than at five years. Yet, when the participants were asked after five years how they had felt six months after the death of their significant other, the intensity of grief participants recalled was highly correlated with their current level of grief.

Individuals appear to utilize their current emotional states to analyze how they must have felt when experiencing past events. One study showed how selective memory can maintain belief in extrasensory perception ESP.

Half of each group were told that the experimental results supported the existence of ESP, while the others were told they did not. In a subsequent test, participants recalled the material accurately, apart from believers who had read the non-supportive evidence.

This group remembered significantly less information and some of them incorrectly remembered the results as supporting ESP. Myside bias was once believed to be correlated with intelligence; however, studies have shown that myside bias can be more influenced by ability to rationally think as opposed to level of intelligence.

Studies have stated that myside bias is an absence of "active open-mindedness", meaning the active search for why an initial idea may be wrong.

A study has found individual differences in myside bias. This study investigates individual differences that are acquired through learning in a cultural context and are mutable.

The researcher found important individual difference in argumentation. Studies have suggested that individual differences such as deductive reasoning ability, ability to overcome belief bias, epistemological understanding, and thinking disposition are significant predictors of the reasoning and generating arguments, counterarguments, and rebuttals.

A study by Christopher Wolfe and Anne Britt also investigated how participants' views of "what makes a good argument? The participants were randomly assigned to write essays either for or against their preferred side of an argument and were given research instructions that took either a balanced or an unrestricted approach.

The balanced-research instructions directed participants to create a "balanced" argument, i. Overall, the results revealed that the balanced-research instructions significantly increased the incidence of opposing information in arguments.

These data also reveal that personal belief is not a source of myside bias; however, that those participants, who believe that a good argument is one that is based on facts, are more likely to exhibit myside bias than other participants.

This evidence is consistent with the claims proposed in Baron's article—that people's opinions about what makes good thinking can influence how arguments are generated.

Before psychological research on confirmation bias, the phenomenon had been observed throughout history. Beginning with the Greek historian Thucydides c.

Thomas Aquinas cautions Dante upon meeting in Paradise, "opinion—hasty—often can incline to the wrong side, and then affection for one's own opinion binds, confines the mind".

Untruth naturally afflicts historical information. There are various reasons that make this unavoidable. One of them is partisanship for opinions and schools.

Prejudice and partisanship obscure the critical faculty and preclude critical investigation. The result is that falsehoods are accepted and transmitted.

In the Novum Organum , English philosopher and scientist Francis Bacon — [47] noted that biased assessment of evidence drove "all superstitions, whether in astrology, dreams, omens, divine judgments or the like".

The human understanding when it has once adopted an opinion And though there be a greater number and weight of instances to be found on the other side, yet these it either neglects or despises, or else by some distinction sets aside or rejects[.

In the second volume of his The World as Will and Representation , German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer observed that "An adopted hypothesis gives us lynx-eyes for everything that confirms it and makes us blind to everything that contradicts it.

I know that most men—not only those considered clever, but even those who are very clever, and capable of understanding most difficult scientific, mathematical, or philosophic problems—can very seldom discern even the simplest and most obvious truth if it be such as to oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions they have formed, perhaps with much difficulty—conclusions of which they are proud, which they have taught to others, and on which they have built their lives.

In Peter Wasons' initial experiment published in which does not mention the term "confirmation bias" , he repeatedly challenged participants to identify a rule applying to triples of numbers.

They were told that 2,4,6 fits the rule. They generated triples, and the experimenter told them whether or not each triple conformed to the rule. The actual rule was simply "any ascending sequence", but participants had great difficulty in finding it, often announcing rules that were far more specific, such as "the middle number is the average of the first and last".

For example, if they thought the rule was, "Each number is two greater than its predecessor," they would offer a triple that fitted confirmed this rule, such as 11,13,15 rather than a triple that violated falsified it, such as 11,12, Wason interpreted his results as showing a preference for confirmation over falsification, hence he coined the term "confirmation bias".

Klayman and Ha's paper argues that the Wason experiments do not actually demonstrate a bias towards confirmation, but instead a tendency to make tests consistent with the working hypothesis.

According to these ideas, each answer to a question yields a different amount of information, which depends on the person's prior beliefs.

Thus a scientific test of a hypothesis is one that is expected to produce the most information. Since the information content depends on initial probabilities, a positive test can either be highly informative or uninformative.

Klayman and Ha argued that when people think about realistic problems, they are looking for a specific answer with a small initial probability.

In this case, positive tests are usually more informative than negative tests. Klayman and Ha supported their analysis by citing an experiment that used the labels "DAX" and "MED" in place of "fits the rule" and "doesn't fit the rule".

This avoided implying that the aim was to find a low-probability rule. Participants had much more success with this version of the experiment.

In light of this and other critiques, the focus of research moved away from confirmation versus falsification of an hypothesis, to examining whether people test hypotheses in an informative way, or an uninformative but positive way.

The search for "true" confirmation bias led psychologists to look at a wider range of effects in how people process information. There are currently three main information processing explanations of confirmation bias, plus a recent addition.

According to Robert MacCoun , most biased evidence processing occurs through a combination of "cold" cognitive and "hot" motivated mechanisms.

Cognitive explanations for confirmation bias are based on limitations in people's ability to handle complex tasks, and the shortcuts, called heuristics , that they use.

This heuristic avoids the difficult or impossible task of working out how diagnostic each possible question will be.

However, it is not universally reliable, so people can overlook challenges to their existing beliefs. Motivational explanations involve an effect of desire on belief.

According to experiments that manipulate the desirability of the conclusion, people demand a high standard of evidence for unpalatable ideas and a low standard for preferred ideas.

In other words, they ask, "Can I believe this? Social psychologist Ziva Kunda combines the cognitive and motivational theories, arguing that motivation creates the bias, but cognitive factors determine the size of the effect.

Explanations in terms of cost-benefit analysis assume that people do not just test hypotheses in a disinterested way, but assess the costs of different errors.

For example, employers might ask one-sided questions in job interviews because they are focused on weeding out unsuitable candidates.

For instance, someone who underestimates a friend's honesty might treat him or her suspiciously and so undermine the friendship.

Overestimating the friend's honesty may also be costly, but less so. In this case, it would be rational to seek, evaluate or remember evidence of their honesty in a biased way.

Highly self-monitoring students, who are more sensitive to their environment and to social norms , asked more matching questions when interviewing a high-status staff member than when getting to know fellow students.

Psychologists Jennifer Lerner and Philip Tetlock distinguish two different kinds of thinking process. Exploratory thought neutrally considers multiple points of view and tries to anticipate all possible objections to a particular position, while confirmatory thought seeks to justify a specific point of view.

Lerner and Tetlock say that when people expect to justify their position to others whose views they already know, they will tend to adopt a similar position to those people, and then use confirmatory thought to bolster their own credibility.

However, if the external parties are overly aggressive or critical, people will disengage from thought altogether, and simply assert their personal opinions without justification.

Lerner and Tetlock say that people only push themselves to think critically and logically when they know in advance they will need to explain themselves to others who are well-informed, genuinely interested in the truth, and whose views they don't already know.

Because those conditions rarely exist, they argue, most people are using confirmatory thought most of the time. Developmental psychologist Eve Whitmore has argued that beliefs and biases involved in confirmation bias have their roots in childhood coping through make-believe, which becomes "the basis for more complex forms of self-deception and illusion into adulthood.

In social media , confirmation bias is amplified by the use of filter bubbles , or "algorithmic editing", which displays to individuals only information they are likely to agree with, while excluding opposing views.

Facebook generates Information system designs inherently guide behavior of its users and, in combating the spread of fake news, social media sites have considered turning toward "digital nudging".

This includes nudging of information and nudging of presentation. Nudging of information entails social media sites providing a disclaimer or label questioning or warning users of the validity of the source while nudging of presentation includes exposing users to new information which they may not have sought out but could introduce them to viewpoints that may combat their own confirmation biases.

A distinguishing feature of scientific thinking is the search for confirming or supportive evidence inductive reasoning as well as falsifying evidence deductive reasoning.

Inductive research in particular can have a serious problem with confirmation bias. Many times in the history of science , scientists have resisted new discoveries by selectively interpreting or ignoring unfavorable data.

It has been found several times that scientists rate studies that report findings consistent with their prior beliefs more favorably than studies reporting findings inconsistent with their previous beliefs.

In practice, researchers may misunderstand, misinterpret, or not read at all studies that contradict their preconceptions, or wrongly cite them anyway as if they actually supported their claims.

In the context of scientific research, confirmation biases can sustain theories or research programs in the face of inadequate or even contradictory evidence.

An experimenter's confirmation bias can potentially affect which data are reported. Data that conflict with the experimenter's expectations may be more readily discarded as unreliable, producing the so-called file drawer effect.

To combat this tendency, scientific training teaches ways to prevent bias. Confirmation bias can lead investors to be overconfident, ignoring evidence that their strategies will lose money.

For example, participants who interpreted a candidate's debate performance in a neutral rather than partisan way were more likely to profit.

Raymond Nickerson, a psychologist, blames confirmation bias for the ineffective medical procedures that were used for centuries before the arrival of scientific medicine.

Biased assimilation is a factor in the modern appeal of alternative medicine , whose proponents are swayed by positive anecdotal evidence but treat scientific evidence hyper-critically.

Beck in the early s and has become a popular approach. Nickerson argues that reasoning in judicial and political contexts is sometimes subconsciously biased, favoring conclusions that judges, juries or governments have already committed to.

The prediction that jurors will become more extreme in their views as they see more evidence has been borne out in experiments with mock trials.

Confirmation bias can be a factor in creating or extending conflicts, from emotionally charged debates to wars: by interpreting the evidence in their favor, each opposing party can become overconfident that it is in the stronger position.

It per cent still gives me enjoyment, I just don't think it's healthy anymore and I'm trying to stop. Steve's cautionary tale mirrors the message educators are desperately trying to drum into teen boys and girls today: be careful where you take your sexual cues from, and don't believe everything you see online.

Across Australia schools are bringing in specialist speakers to educate the kids on the perils of porn, and preach a message of safe sex.

What they're hearing, however, isn't just that porn is leading to unrealistic expectations of sex, but that we're now facing a far more dangerous situation.

The former police officer is one of several experts who have told the ABC they are hearing an increasing number of reports of high school girls sustaining serious injuries trying to replicate things they or their boyfriend have seen in porn.

It does tend to be quite violent or being tied up, and the girls often feel very powerless to say no," Ms McLean said. These aren't girls who have been plucked off the street and raped, Ms McLean said, nor cornered at parties by drunken boys.

These acts are happening in bedrooms across the country where the portability of the internet has enabled kids — and adults like Steve — to load a porn video on their phone, show it to their partner and say, "Here, do this".

The ABC is aware of one case where a teen girl was hospitalised and her boyfriend prosecuted by police after their sexual exploration — believed to be inspired by porn — got out of control.

Two childhoods were derailed. In another story relayed to the ABC by an educator who speaks in schools, a year-old girl was so badly injured attempting group anal sex she now needs a colostomy bag.

These stories are confronting, but perhaps shouldn't be surprising if the stats are to be believed. Sites like PornHub — one of the biggest in the world — promote their pulling power, publishing statistics that show they had Australian ranked ninth for visitors — beaten only by larger countries like the US, UK and India — and also had one of the longer average viewing times.

Porn education organisation Reality and Risk estimates more than 90 per cent of boys and 60 per cent of girls have seen online porn.

And that 88 per cent of the most popular porn includes physical aggression. This last point has been the subject of extensive research by RMIT senior lecturer Meagan Tyler, who has found pornographers overseas — most notably in the US — have made a conscious effort to make their content more violent.

Tasmanian GP and former Royal Australian College of General Practitioners president, Bastian Seidel, has seen how these activities, even when consensual, can go dangerously wrong.

He can't confirm a link between porn and injuries, because he makes a point not to question his patients lest he be seen as judgemental and scare them from seeking future treatment.

The private nature of these activities combined with doctors not being required to report injuries from "consensual" sex lead Ms McLean to fear we aren't grasping the gravity of the situation.

He was cunning, she said, and sneaky. He was only a couple of years older than her but would go to the shops and steal the adult magazines that were sealed in plastic wrapping.

He'd pore over the pictures and then corner his sister, making their younger brother stand watch. The abuse went on for years and only stopped when Sarah's mum came home one day to find her brother chasing her around the house.

He would later die in a car crash in his late teens, and it would be more than 20 years before Sarah would finally tell her parents what had actually happened.

The sex had started consensually, but despite repeatedly telling him beforehand that she didn't want to try anal sex he forced himself upon her.

Sarah was left with nerve damage and a fear of physical contact that prevents her from even hugging her mum. Police investigated but didn't press charges, leaving Sarah to later successfully seek compensation through the Victims of Crime Assistance Tribunal.

Currently in Australia online pornography is regulated by the eSafety Commissioner, Julie Inman Grant, and assessed using the same classification system that applies to films you would see in a regular cinema.

There is a different set of rules for DVDs and magazines, but who buys porn off the shelf these days?

The clear majority is now online and hosted on overseas websites. And regulating this is a very different story. The eSafety Commissioner has no power to issue take-down notices to foreign websites and doesn't currently direct internet services providers to block content.

At best, there are a variety of optional internet filters people can buy and install on their devices. It means Australia's regulations don't curtail violent or "objectionable" porn being watched locally, they simply stop it being hosted here.

Australian pornographer Garion Hall is something of a trailblazer in locally made porn and his story highlights the inherent paradox of Australian laws.

He founded the website Abby Winters in with a focus on real-life couples depicting what he calls "loving and caring and fun and happy" porn.

But in police raided the Melbourne office of Abby Winters and prosecuted for two porn-related offences, with its parent company later paying a fine for producing objectionable films.

In a matter of weeks Mr Hall relocated his entire operation to Amsterdam, where the domain is still hosted and continues to sign up Australian subscribers, who can freely access the site from home.

Still, Mr Hall doesn't advocate for aggressive porn and isn't convinced the industry is drifting that way, suggesting perhaps the internet has just made it easier to find for the few who want it.

To bypass local laws, Abby Winters finds Australian models then pays to fly them overseas for film shoots.

She describes the local porn community as supportive and nurturing, and she challenges the idea that the women involved are there as a choice of last resort.

It's a common enough assumption and one that Lilian has had to address within her own family, including from an aunt who offered to pay her to not travel to Amsterdam.

Once the situation was explained to her aunt, however, she became supportive and even encouraging. Confidential magazine to throw a book party for their friends, a kitchen power couple -- he cooks; she writes -- named Andrew Dornenburg and Karen Page.

Senate, has stopped running and started playing, recording a country music CD and planning a nationwide tour. I will also be available to speak Fabricator Jayson Blair, late of the New York Times, is scheduled to appear and sign his book at 7 p.

True, so far. Notice on L. Her e-mail address is patt. Read past columns at latimes. Her broadcasting work has won six Emmys and 12 Golden Mike awards.

Truth, Justice and the American Newspaper. Hot Property.

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Sarah was left with nerve damage and a fear of physical contact that prevents her from even hugging her mum.

Police investigated but didn't press charges, leaving Sarah to later successfully seek compensation through the Victims of Crime Assistance Tribunal.

Currently in Australia online pornography is regulated by the eSafety Commissioner, Julie Inman Grant, and assessed using the same classification system that applies to films you would see in a regular cinema.

There is a different set of rules for DVDs and magazines, but who buys porn off the shelf these days?

The clear majority is now online and hosted on overseas websites. And regulating this is a very different story. The eSafety Commissioner has no power to issue take-down notices to foreign websites and doesn't currently direct internet services providers to block content.

At best, there are a variety of optional internet filters people can buy and install on their devices. It means Australia's regulations don't curtail violent or "objectionable" porn being watched locally, they simply stop it being hosted here.

Australian pornographer Garion Hall is something of a trailblazer in locally made porn and his story highlights the inherent paradox of Australian laws.

He founded the website Abby Winters in with a focus on real-life couples depicting what he calls "loving and caring and fun and happy" porn.

But in police raided the Melbourne office of Abby Winters and prosecuted for two porn-related offences, with its parent company later paying a fine for producing objectionable films.

In a matter of weeks Mr Hall relocated his entire operation to Amsterdam, where the domain is still hosted and continues to sign up Australian subscribers, who can freely access the site from home.

Still, Mr Hall doesn't advocate for aggressive porn and isn't convinced the industry is drifting that way, suggesting perhaps the internet has just made it easier to find for the few who want it.

To bypass local laws, Abby Winters finds Australian models then pays to fly them overseas for film shoots. She describes the local porn community as supportive and nurturing, and she challenges the idea that the women involved are there as a choice of last resort.

It's a common enough assumption and one that Lilian has had to address within her own family, including from an aunt who offered to pay her to not travel to Amsterdam.

Once the situation was explained to her aunt, however, she became supportive and even encouraging. And she has a message for those who feel squeamish about the topic: "The world needs to just buck up about it.

Neither Lilian nor Mr Hall shy away from the fact porn is a taboo topic for many, and that children need to be educated about it.

Mr Hall said more needed to be done to teach kids it is fantasy — not a how-to guide — in the same way a James Bond film isn't a training video about how to resolve conflict.

And he said consent also needed to be part of the conversation. It's sort of assumed that consent is given," he said.

When it comes to who should shoulder the responsibility for this education, Mr Hall said it was a community-wide issue and parents needed to play their role.

In this he shares an unlikely alliance with the very person who would regulate his ability to host Abby Winters in Australia: the eSafety Commissioner.

As the internet spread across the country and crept from loungeroom computers to phones in the schoolyard and bedroom, lawmakers became anxious about its possible harmful effects.

Over the years various inquiries and committees have provided reams of recommendations into what can be done. In the meantime, the eSafety Commissioner maintains parents are best placed to educate kids about online safety, and suggests interventions like internet filters could have harmful side effects.

Porn researchers like Melinda Tankard Reist are starting to lose faith that their submissions and expert analysis are being heard by government.

Communications Minister Mitch Fifield announced the latest foray into the area in June, in the form of two new independent reviews into online safety.

The first will look at the powers of the eSafety Commissioner and whether they need to be expanded. The second will examine parts of the Broadcasting Services Act that relate to online content and whether there are any possible policy measures to address — among other things — inappropriate pornography.

Mr Fifield's office did not grant an interview with the Minister on the topic, but promised the findings of these reviews would be tabled in Parliament no later than February.

The Senate last looked at the issue in a inquiry, and a spinoff expert panel submitted its policy recommendations to the Government in December Liberal senator Jonathon Duniam was one of the members of that inquiry and admits he has no ready answers.

Despite the anomalies in our current laws, a direct regulatory approach is likely to find its own detractors.

Mandatory internet filters — the kind that could potentially block overseas pornography sites — are contentious and have proven too politically poisonous in the past.

A spokesperson for Mr Fifield told the ABC the Government had no plans to impose an "opt-out" filtering system either. Submissions to the inquiry also reveal how the idea can polarise groups, even as they jostle for the high moral ground.

While one group says filters are vital to protect kids, another group cries censorship. Now she is simply hoping her story will inspire others to think about their relationships and where they are taking their sexual cues from.

You don't just try it because you've seen it in a video. Topics: pornography , community-and-society , children , family-and-children , federal-government , womens-status.

First posted January 16, Contact Patrick Wood. If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC. ABC teams share the story behind the story and insights into the making of digital, TV and radio content.

Read about our editorial guiding principles and the standards ABC journalists and content makers follow. Learn more.

By Peter Marsh. The election won't be delayed, but the debates could be cancelled. Here's what we know about Donald Trump's positive coronavirus test.

By business reporter Emily Stewart. It's true that both household and government budgets are documents or structures used to organise spending.

But there are some big differences. By Amanda Shalala. Hockeyroos co-captain Jodie Kenny wasn't prepared for the emotional and physical challenges of returning to the top of her sport after giving birth to her son, Harrison.

By Dean Bilton and Jon Healy. Travelling during a pandemic is stressful enough, but the prospect of two weeks isolated in a hotel room at the other end is keeping some Australians overseas.

Live blog Follow our live blog for the latest news on the coronavirus pandemic. By Patrick Wood. Photo: About 88 per cent of the most popular porn includes physical aggression, Reality and Risk found.

Illustration: Ben Nelson. Photo: Australia is the ninth biggest source of traffic to online site PornHub worldwide. Photo: The link between pornography and dangerous attitudes towards sex is often made.

Can you stop kids watching porn? Another study of biased interpretation occurred during the U. They were shown apparently contradictory pairs of statements, either from Republican candidate George W.

Bush , Democratic candidate John Kerry or a politically neutral public figure. They were also given further statements that made the apparent contradiction seem reasonable.

From these three pieces of information, they had to decide whether or not each individual's statements were inconsistent.

In this experiment, the participants made their judgments while in a magnetic resonance imaging MRI scanner which monitored their brain activity.

As participants evaluated contradictory statements by their favored candidate, emotional centers of their brains were aroused.

This did not happen with the statements by the other figures. The experimenters inferred that the different responses to the statements were not due to passive reasoning errors.

Instead, the participants were actively reducing the cognitive dissonance induced by reading about their favored candidate's irrational or hypocritical behavior.

Biases in belief interpretation are persistent, regardless of intelligence level. Participants in an experiment took the SAT test a college admissions test used in the United States to assess their intelligence levels.

They then read information regarding safety concerns for vehicles, and the experimenters manipulated the national origin of the car.

American participants provided their opinion if the car should be banned on a six-point scale, where one indicated "definitely yes" and six indicated "definitely no".

Participants firstly evaluated if they would allow a dangerous German car on American streets and a dangerous American car on German streets.

Participants believed that the dangerous German car on American streets should be banned more quickly than the dangerous American car on German streets.

There was no difference among intelligence levels at the rate participants would ban a car. Biased interpretation is not restricted to emotionally significant topics.

In another experiment, participants were told a story about a theft. They had to rate the evidential importance of statements arguing either for or against a particular character being responsible.

When they hypothesized that character's guilt, they rated statements supporting that hypothesis as more important than conflicting statements.

People may remember evidence selectively to reinforce their expectations, even if they gather and interpret evidence in a neutral manner.

This effect is called "selective recall", "confirmatory memory", or "access-biased memory". Schema theory predicts that information matching prior expectations will be more easily stored and recalled than information that does not match.

In one study, participants read a profile of a woman which described a mix of introverted and extroverted behaviors.

One group was told this was to assess the woman for a job as a librarian, while a second group were told it was for a job in real estate sales.

There was a significant difference between what these two groups recalled, with the "librarian" group recalling more examples of introversion and the "sales" groups recalling more extroverted behavior.

Another group were told the opposite. In a subsequent, apparently unrelated study, participants were asked to recall events from their lives in which they had been either introverted or extroverted.

Each group of participants provided more memories connecting themselves with the more desirable personality type, and recalled those memories more quickly.

Changes in emotional states can also influence memory recall. Simpson had been acquitted of murder charges. Results indicated that participants' assessments for Simpson's guilt changed over time.

The more that participants' opinion of the verdict had changed, the less stable were the participant's memories regarding their initial emotional reactions.

When participants recalled their initial emotional reactions two months and a year later, past appraisals closely resembled current appraisals of emotion.

People demonstrate sizable myside bias when discussing their opinions on controversial topics. Myside bias has been shown to influence the accuracy of memory recall.

Participants noted a higher experience of grief at six months rather than at five years. Yet, when the participants were asked after five years how they had felt six months after the death of their significant other, the intensity of grief participants recalled was highly correlated with their current level of grief.

Individuals appear to utilize their current emotional states to analyze how they must have felt when experiencing past events.

One study showed how selective memory can maintain belief in extrasensory perception ESP. Half of each group were told that the experimental results supported the existence of ESP, while the others were told they did not.

In a subsequent test, participants recalled the material accurately, apart from believers who had read the non-supportive evidence.

This group remembered significantly less information and some of them incorrectly remembered the results as supporting ESP. Myside bias was once believed to be correlated with intelligence; however, studies have shown that myside bias can be more influenced by ability to rationally think as opposed to level of intelligence.

Studies have stated that myside bias is an absence of "active open-mindedness", meaning the active search for why an initial idea may be wrong.

A study has found individual differences in myside bias. This study investigates individual differences that are acquired through learning in a cultural context and are mutable.

The researcher found important individual difference in argumentation. Studies have suggested that individual differences such as deductive reasoning ability, ability to overcome belief bias, epistemological understanding, and thinking disposition are significant predictors of the reasoning and generating arguments, counterarguments, and rebuttals.

A study by Christopher Wolfe and Anne Britt also investigated how participants' views of "what makes a good argument? The participants were randomly assigned to write essays either for or against their preferred side of an argument and were given research instructions that took either a balanced or an unrestricted approach.

The balanced-research instructions directed participants to create a "balanced" argument, i. Overall, the results revealed that the balanced-research instructions significantly increased the incidence of opposing information in arguments.

These data also reveal that personal belief is not a source of myside bias; however, that those participants, who believe that a good argument is one that is based on facts, are more likely to exhibit myside bias than other participants.

This evidence is consistent with the claims proposed in Baron's article—that people's opinions about what makes good thinking can influence how arguments are generated.

Before psychological research on confirmation bias, the phenomenon had been observed throughout history. Beginning with the Greek historian Thucydides c.

Thomas Aquinas cautions Dante upon meeting in Paradise, "opinion—hasty—often can incline to the wrong side, and then affection for one's own opinion binds, confines the mind".

Untruth naturally afflicts historical information. There are various reasons that make this unavoidable. One of them is partisanship for opinions and schools.

Prejudice and partisanship obscure the critical faculty and preclude critical investigation. The result is that falsehoods are accepted and transmitted.

In the Novum Organum , English philosopher and scientist Francis Bacon — [47] noted that biased assessment of evidence drove "all superstitions, whether in astrology, dreams, omens, divine judgments or the like".

The human understanding when it has once adopted an opinion And though there be a greater number and weight of instances to be found on the other side, yet these it either neglects or despises, or else by some distinction sets aside or rejects[.

In the second volume of his The World as Will and Representation , German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer observed that "An adopted hypothesis gives us lynx-eyes for everything that confirms it and makes us blind to everything that contradicts it.

I know that most men—not only those considered clever, but even those who are very clever, and capable of understanding most difficult scientific, mathematical, or philosophic problems—can very seldom discern even the simplest and most obvious truth if it be such as to oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions they have formed, perhaps with much difficulty—conclusions of which they are proud, which they have taught to others, and on which they have built their lives.

In Peter Wasons' initial experiment published in which does not mention the term "confirmation bias" , he repeatedly challenged participants to identify a rule applying to triples of numbers.

They were told that 2,4,6 fits the rule. They generated triples, and the experimenter told them whether or not each triple conformed to the rule.

The actual rule was simply "any ascending sequence", but participants had great difficulty in finding it, often announcing rules that were far more specific, such as "the middle number is the average of the first and last".

For example, if they thought the rule was, "Each number is two greater than its predecessor," they would offer a triple that fitted confirmed this rule, such as 11,13,15 rather than a triple that violated falsified it, such as 11,12, Wason interpreted his results as showing a preference for confirmation over falsification, hence he coined the term "confirmation bias".

Klayman and Ha's paper argues that the Wason experiments do not actually demonstrate a bias towards confirmation, but instead a tendency to make tests consistent with the working hypothesis.

According to these ideas, each answer to a question yields a different amount of information, which depends on the person's prior beliefs.

Thus a scientific test of a hypothesis is one that is expected to produce the most information. Since the information content depends on initial probabilities, a positive test can either be highly informative or uninformative.

Klayman and Ha argued that when people think about realistic problems, they are looking for a specific answer with a small initial probability.

In this case, positive tests are usually more informative than negative tests. Klayman and Ha supported their analysis by citing an experiment that used the labels "DAX" and "MED" in place of "fits the rule" and "doesn't fit the rule".

This avoided implying that the aim was to find a low-probability rule. Participants had much more success with this version of the experiment.

In light of this and other critiques, the focus of research moved away from confirmation versus falsification of an hypothesis, to examining whether people test hypotheses in an informative way, or an uninformative but positive way.

The search for "true" confirmation bias led psychologists to look at a wider range of effects in how people process information.

There are currently three main information processing explanations of confirmation bias, plus a recent addition.

According to Robert MacCoun , most biased evidence processing occurs through a combination of "cold" cognitive and "hot" motivated mechanisms.

Cognitive explanations for confirmation bias are based on limitations in people's ability to handle complex tasks, and the shortcuts, called heuristics , that they use.

This heuristic avoids the difficult or impossible task of working out how diagnostic each possible question will be.

However, it is not universally reliable, so people can overlook challenges to their existing beliefs. Motivational explanations involve an effect of desire on belief.

According to experiments that manipulate the desirability of the conclusion, people demand a high standard of evidence for unpalatable ideas and a low standard for preferred ideas.

In other words, they ask, "Can I believe this? Social psychologist Ziva Kunda combines the cognitive and motivational theories, arguing that motivation creates the bias, but cognitive factors determine the size of the effect.

Explanations in terms of cost-benefit analysis assume that people do not just test hypotheses in a disinterested way, but assess the costs of different errors.

For example, employers might ask one-sided questions in job interviews because they are focused on weeding out unsuitable candidates.

For instance, someone who underestimates a friend's honesty might treat him or her suspiciously and so undermine the friendship.

Overestimating the friend's honesty may also be costly, but less so. In this case, it would be rational to seek, evaluate or remember evidence of their honesty in a biased way.

Highly self-monitoring students, who are more sensitive to their environment and to social norms , asked more matching questions when interviewing a high-status staff member than when getting to know fellow students.

Psychologists Jennifer Lerner and Philip Tetlock distinguish two different kinds of thinking process. Exploratory thought neutrally considers multiple points of view and tries to anticipate all possible objections to a particular position, while confirmatory thought seeks to justify a specific point of view.

Lerner and Tetlock say that when people expect to justify their position to others whose views they already know, they will tend to adopt a similar position to those people, and then use confirmatory thought to bolster their own credibility.

However, if the external parties are overly aggressive or critical, people will disengage from thought altogether, and simply assert their personal opinions without justification.

Lerner and Tetlock say that people only push themselves to think critically and logically when they know in advance they will need to explain themselves to others who are well-informed, genuinely interested in the truth, and whose views they don't already know.

Because those conditions rarely exist, they argue, most people are using confirmatory thought most of the time.

Developmental psychologist Eve Whitmore has argued that beliefs and biases involved in confirmation bias have their roots in childhood coping through make-believe, which becomes "the basis for more complex forms of self-deception and illusion into adulthood.

In social media , confirmation bias is amplified by the use of filter bubbles , or "algorithmic editing", which displays to individuals only information they are likely to agree with, while excluding opposing views.

Facebook generates Information system designs inherently guide behavior of its users and, in combating the spread of fake news, social media sites have considered turning toward "digital nudging".

This includes nudging of information and nudging of presentation. Nudging of information entails social media sites providing a disclaimer or label questioning or warning users of the validity of the source while nudging of presentation includes exposing users to new information which they may not have sought out but could introduce them to viewpoints that may combat their own confirmation biases.

A distinguishing feature of scientific thinking is the search for confirming or supportive evidence inductive reasoning as well as falsifying evidence deductive reasoning.

Inductive research in particular can have a serious problem with confirmation bias. Many times in the history of science , scientists have resisted new discoveries by selectively interpreting or ignoring unfavorable data.

It has been found several times that scientists rate studies that report findings consistent with their prior beliefs more favorably than studies reporting findings inconsistent with their previous beliefs.

In practice, researchers may misunderstand, misinterpret, or not read at all studies that contradict their preconceptions, or wrongly cite them anyway as if they actually supported their claims.

In the context of scientific research, confirmation biases can sustain theories or research programs in the face of inadequate or even contradictory evidence.

An experimenter's confirmation bias can potentially affect which data are reported. Data that conflict with the experimenter's expectations may be more readily discarded as unreliable, producing the so-called file drawer effect.

To combat this tendency, scientific training teaches ways to prevent bias. Confirmation bias can lead investors to be overconfident, ignoring evidence that their strategies will lose money.

For example, participants who interpreted a candidate's debate performance in a neutral rather than partisan way were more likely to profit.

Raymond Nickerson, a psychologist, blames confirmation bias for the ineffective medical procedures that were used for centuries before the arrival of scientific medicine.

Biased assimilation is a factor in the modern appeal of alternative medicine , whose proponents are swayed by positive anecdotal evidence but treat scientific evidence hyper-critically.

Beck in the early s and has become a popular approach. Nickerson argues that reasoning in judicial and political contexts is sometimes subconsciously biased, favoring conclusions that judges, juries or governments have already committed to.

The prediction that jurors will become more extreme in their views as they see more evidence has been borne out in experiments with mock trials.

Confirmation bias can be a factor in creating or extending conflicts, from emotionally charged debates to wars: by interpreting the evidence in their favor, each opposing party can become overconfident that it is in the stronger position.

Navy Admiral Husband E. Kimmel showed confirmation bias when playing down the first signs of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

A two-decade study of political pundits by Philip E. Tetlock found that, on the whole, their predictions were not much better than chance. Tetlock divided experts into "foxes" who maintained multiple hypotheses, and "hedgehogs" who were more dogmatic.

In general, the hedgehogs were much less accurate. Tetlock blamed their failure on confirmation bias, and specifically on their inability to make use of new information that contradicted their existing theories.

In police investigations, a detective may identify a suspect early in an investigation, but then sometimes largely seek supporting or confirming evidence, ignoring or downplaying falsifying evidence.

Social psychologists have identified two tendencies in the way people seek or interpret information about themselves.

Self-verification is the drive to reinforce the existing self-image and self-enhancement is the drive to seek positive feedback. Both are served by confirmation biases.

Confirmation bias can play a key role in the propagation of mass delusions. Witch trials are frequently cited as an example.

For another example, in the Seattle windshield pitting epidemic , there seemed to be a "pitting epidemic" in which windshields were damaged due to an unknown cause.

As news of the apparent wave of damage spread, more and more people checked their windshields, discovered that their windshields too had been damaged, thus confirming belief in the supposed epidemic.

In fact, the windshields were previously damaged, but the damage went unnoticed until people checked their windshields as the delusion spread.

One factor in the appeal of alleged psychic readings is that listeners apply a confirmation bias which fits the psychic's statements to their own lives.

This is one of the techniques of cold reading , with which a psychic can deliver a subjectively impressive reading without any prior information about the client.

As a striking illustration of confirmation bias in the real world, Nickerson mentions numerological pyramidology : the practice of finding meaning in the proportions of the Egyptian pyramids.

Hence it is almost inevitable that people who look at these numbers selectively will find superficially impressive correspondences, for example with the dimensions of the Earth.

Unconscious cognitive bias including confirmation bias in job recruitment affects hiring decisions and can potentially prohibit a diverse and inclusive workplace.

There are a variety of unconscious biases that affects recruitment decisions but confirmation bias is one of the major ones, especially during the interview stage.

When people with opposing views interpret new information in a biased way, their views can move even further apart. This is called "attitude polarization".

The experimenters looked at what happened when balls of alternating color were drawn in turn, a sequence that does not favor either basket.

After each ball was drawn, participants in one group were asked to state out loud their judgments of the probability that the balls were being drawn from one or the other basket.

Another group of participants were asked to state probability estimates only at the end of a sequence of drawn balls, rather than after each ball.

They did not show the polarization effect, suggesting that it does not necessarily occur when people simply hold opposing positions, but rather when they openly commit to them.

A less abstract study was the Stanford biased interpretation experiment in which participants with strong opinions about the death penalty read about mixed experimental evidence.

Twenty-three percent of the participants reported that their views had become more extreme, and this self-reported shift correlated strongly with their initial attitudes.

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